Animal Alliance of Canada and Zoocheck Canada are challenging the hunt, saying mother bears will be killed and their orphaned cubs left to starve or be killed by predators.
The animal rights groups have filed an application for a judicial review, and say they hope the court will at least delay the start of the hunt until it can issue a ruling.
Their lawyer has said the hunt would be contrary to animal cruelty provisions in the Criminal Code.
The pilot project to reinstate the spring bear hunt is slated to begin May 1 and run for six weeks in eight wildlife areas known for having the most public safety incidents involving bears.
The hunt was cancelled in 1999.