Charles listed a number of challenges facing the world from the widening gap between rich and poor to inequality for women and young girls to climate change after he received an honorary Symons Medal on Tuesday in Charlottetown for his contribution to Canadian society.
"I'm sure that you would agree the world faces huge challenges but has enormous opportunities," he said.
Known for sometimes being outspoken on social and environmental issues, Charles spoke about the "nexus of water, energy and food security" as the world's population grows and "finding common purpose in meeting our common needs."
"These are environmental, economic and social issues all tied together," he said. "In other words, the health of nature's life support systems, which are now under such threat, has a direct bearing upon the health and well being of people."
The Prince of Wales said the birth of his grandson has had an impact on his views.
"I have longed tried to draw attention to this connection but it has come into even sharper focus now that I am a grandfather," he added.
"It is all our grandchildren who will have to live with the very serious consequences of us believing today that we can simply carry on with business as usual as if nothing has changed."
Earlier Tuesday, Charles and his wife Camilla watched a debate on Canada's future at a youth parliament inside Prince Edward Island's historic legislature.
The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall took in the debate involving 15 young people as they discussed a resolution that calls on Canadian youth to build on the work of the Fathers of Confederation.
The city is celebrating the 150th anniversary this year of the Charlottetown Conference, which led to Confederation in 1867.
Charles and Camilla attended Charlottetown's Victoria Day festivities on Monday night after spending most of the day in Nova Scotia.
The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall have a full day of events scheduled in Winnipeg on Wednesday before wrapping up their four-day visit.